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Record identifier : 565587
Personal Name - Primary Intelectual Responsibility : Feldon, David Frank
Title and statement of responsibility : Inaccuracies in expert self-report: Errors in the description of strategies for designing psychology experiments [Thesis]
Publication, Distribution,Etc. : University of Southern California, 2004
Language of the Item : eng
Dissertation of thesis details and type of degree : Ph.D.
Body granting the degree : , University of Southern California
Summary or Abstract : Expertise is developed through the acquisition of domain-specific skills and schemas that manifest as highly effective problem solving strategies. After extensive deliberate practice and experience within the domain of expertise, these skills become automated and impose less cognitive load on a limited short term memory capacity. Further, as skills automate, fewer decision points require conscious resolution and consequently are unlikely to be retained in long term memory as specific episodic representations that could be accurately recalled and articulated. The purposes of this study were to: (a) understand the strategies used by novices (undergraduates), intermediates (doctoral students), and experts (tenured professors) to solve problems in experimental design while utilizing a computer simulation to evaluate competing hypotheses in psychology; (b) analyze the accuracy of self-report in relation to the level of skill automaticity; and (c) demonstrate that experimental design is a viable and specific domain of expertise. Once their strategies were identified, the accuracy of subjects' self-report was analyzed as a function of their levels of cognitive load while performing the task. The study found that regardless of level of expertise, subjects selected one of three general strategies: (a) begin with a strong prediction about a theory and interpret results in relation to it; (b) begin with a highly complex exploratory design to maximize the likelihood of informative patterns in the initial data to pursue a hypothesis subsequently; or (c) use the least complex designs possible where separate experiment explores a different variable with the intention of interpreting the cumulative results in a linear fashion. The results also suggested that automaticity and the accuracy of self-report are negatively correlated and that the criteria for expertise in any domain are under-defined. Implications for expert-based instructional models and future research at the intersections of these topics are discussed.
Topical Name Used as Subject : Educational psychology, Psychology, Experiments
Information of biblio record : TL
 
 
 
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